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ACCA《F4公司法與商法》精選講義第一章(3)


時間:2015-10-29 來源:ACCA/CAT 瀏覽次數:193  【華夏培訓網:中國教育培訓第一門戶

  Session 3 Types of cost and cost behavior  Main contents:  1. Classifying costs  2. Cost objects, cost and co

  Session 3 Types of cost and cost behavior

  Main contents:

  1. Classifying costs

  2. Cost objects, cost and cost centers

  3. Analysis of costs into fixed and variable elements

  3.1 Classifying costs

  Costs can be classified in a number of different ways:

  · Element – costs are classified as materials, labor or expenses (overheads)

  · Nature – costs are classified as being direct or indirect.

  a. Direct cost is expenditure that can be directly identified with a specific cost unit or cost center.

  (1). Direct material is all material becoming part of the product unless used in negligible amount and/or having negligible cost. (component parts, part finished work and primary packing material)

  (2). Direct wages – are wages paid for labor either as basic hours or as overtime expensed on the product line.

  (3). Direct expense are any expense which are incurred on a specified product other than direct material and direct labor.

  b. Indirect costs/ overheads; are expenditure that can not be directly identified with a specific unit or cost center and must be ‘shared out’ on an equitable basis.

  · Behavior –costs are classified as being fixed, variable, semi-variable or stepped fixed.

  a. Fixed costs: are costs that are not affected in total by the level of activity, but remain the same.

  b. Variable costs: are the costs that change in total in direct proportion to the level of activity.

  c. Semi-variable/semi-fixed/mixed costs: are costs which contain both fixed and variable components and so it partly affected by changes in the level of activity.

  d. Step costs: are fixed in nature but only within certain level of activity.

  · Function: costs are classified as being production or non-production costs.

  e. Production costs: are costs included in a stock valuation. The product cost is the cost of making or buying.

  f. Period costs (general cost): are costs that are not attributed to product costs, but instead are treated as a cost of the time period when they arise.

  · Other cost classification:

  Avoidable cost: cost which can be eliminated by changing operations

  Unavoidable cost: cost which will not be changed by decision making.

  Controllable cost: those cost controllable by a particular manager in a given period.

  Uncontrollable cost: any cost that can not be affected by management within a given period.

  COST MODEL: $

  Direct material: 2

  Direct labor 3

  Direct expense 1

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