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最后沖刺英語四級寫作要求與技巧


時間:2015-07-10 來源:英語等級考試網 瀏覽次數:254  【華夏培訓網:中國教育培訓第一門戶

我們審題的目的就是根據不同體裁確定不同的寫作方法。通過審題,我們可以看出四級作文大都是三段式。如上例第一段為議論體,第二段為說明體,第三段為描述體。而各種文體又有不同的寫作方式:議論文:要有論點和論據,而且往往從正反兩方面來論述。

  英語四級考試作文的評分依據是:文章切題,條理清楚語言準確和字數符合要求,所謂切題就是要求考生緊扣文章大綱;條理則要求考生詞匯、語法運用不出錯誤;四級作文的字數要求一般是不少于120字。要在30分鐘的時間內,達到這些要求,沒有一套行之有效的方法顯然是不行的。在這里,我們為大家提供四級寫作的一般技巧。
  一、審題
  1.審體裁(議論文,說明文,描述文)
  審題就是要審作文的題材和體裁。因為什么樣的體裁就會用什么樣的題材去寫。那么體裁包括那些呢?它包括議論文,說明文和描述文。從近些年看,四級作文不是單一的體裁,而是幾種體裁的糅合體。例如:
  Directions: For this part, your are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic
  Trying to Be A Good University Student.
  You should write at least 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline(given in Chinese)below:
  做合格大學生的必要性
  做合格大學生的必備條件(可以從德智體方面談)
  很多人說這種類型的作文是議論文。這是片面的,因為,
  第一段要求寫“„必要性”,則是議論文;
  第二段要求寫“„必備條件”,則要求寫說明文;
  第三段要求寫“„這樣做”,則要求寫描述文。所以在大多數情形下,四級作文是三種體裁的糅合體。
  2.確定相應的寫作方法
  我們審題的目的就是根據不同體裁確定不同的寫作方法。通過審題,我們可以看出四級作文大都是三段式。如上例第一段為議論體,第二段為說明體,第三段為描述體。而各種文體又有不同的寫作方式:議論文:要有論點和論據,而且往往從正反兩方面來論述。例如上面第一段的思路是:做合格大學生,會怎么樣(這是從正面論述);不能做合格的大學生,又會怎么樣(從反面論述);所以我們要做合格的大學生(結論)。說明文:可以從幾方面來說明一個問題,可以從德智體三方面來說明合格大學生的必要性。描述文:以“人”為中心描述一個“做”的過程。與上兩段相比,本段的主語多為人稱代詞,他要與第二段相呼應進行描述。
  二、確定主題句
  審完題后,接下來就是如何寫的問題。第一步就是確定主題句,主題句既能保證你不跑題,又能幫助你制定寫作思路。而寫主題句最保險的方法就是直接翻譯中文提綱,如上述之段主題句為:
  It is very necessary to be a good university student.(議論體的主題句) There are several respects of necessities to be a good university student.(說明體的主題句)
  What I will do in the future is the following.(描述體的主題句)
  三、組織段落
  確定主題句后,接下來的工作就是展開論述。許多考生真正犯難的也是這一步。最基本的解決辦法是擴大詞匯量,豐富自己的語法存儲。在寫作時,語法和詞匯都是最基本的。然而,組織段落的能力也是尤為重要的(接下來的連貫與銜接部分,我們更為詳細的為大家講解)。行文時,不只是提供一些information,還要學會運用一些examples, personal experiences, comparisons, descriptions等等,只有這樣,才不會覺得無話可“寫”。
  四、連貫與銜接
  1.列舉法
  列舉的模式通常是
  主題句
  ----example 1
  ----example 2
  ----example 3
  列舉時常用for example, for instance, such as, like,thus, take„as an example, to illustrate 等詞語.
  Nonverbal communication, or "body language," is communication by facial expressions, head or eye movements, hand signals, and body postures. It can be just as important to understanding as words are.   Misunderstandings are often amusing but sometimes serious ones can arise between people from different culture if they misinterpret nonverbal signals. Take for example, the differences in meaning of gesture are very common in the United States: a circle made with the thumb and index finger. To an American, it means that everything is Ok. To a Japanese, it means that you are talking about money. In France, it means that something is worthless, and in Greece, it is an obscene gesture. Therefore, an American could unknowingly offend a Greek by using that particular hand signal.
  2.分類法
  一般是在主題句之后,依次羅列段落指示詞所表達的幾個部分或幾個方面。然后,選用豐富的事例對所羅列的各個部分或各個方面進行具體地說明或解釋。
  There are three basic kinds of materials that can be found in any good library.
  First, there are books on all subjects, both in English and in many other languages. These books are organized according to subject, title, and author in a central file canned the card catalog. Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks.
  Second, there are reference works, which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliography, atlases, etc., and which generally must be used in the library itself.
  Third, there are periodicals- magazines, newspapers, pamphlets-which are filed
  alphabetically in racks, or which have been filmed to conserve space. Like reference works, periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library. 分類時常用:most of all, next,moreover, in addition,besides,  furthermore,to begin with,to start with,first of all,first,second,third„
  3. 因果關系
  在段落一開頭,就用主題句點明其因果關系,然后選用有關材料,客觀的羅列某些原因或結果,以闡述中心思想。
  Growing numbers of well-to-do Americans are making the decision to move abroad. They find it impossible in America to walk the streets at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered, nor do they see a way to escape the poisonous air of the cities. They maintain that even American food has become increasingly dangerous to eat. Last but not least, they insist that they are sick of the pace of American life, a pace that leaves no time for relaxation or pleasure.
  因果關系常用語匯:
  because of, so, owing to, thanks to, thus, as a result of, hence, for this reason, consequently, is caused by, lead to, result in
  4.比較法
  主題句必須明確表明所要比較的對象和所要比較的范圍,實際上就是羅列兩個或兩個以上比較對象的相同點。
  Learning English is like building a house. Laying a solid foundation is the first and most important step. In other words, you should read and speak English every day. Memorizing new words and phrases is also helpful. Like building a house, learning English takes some time.
  So don’t be impatient. Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day.
  常用語匯:at the same time, similar to, accordingly, both, show a degree of similarity, similarly, the same as, and„ too, in the same way, in a like manner
  5.舉例法
  列舉事實或舉出實例來說明中心思想, 是簡單易行、具有說服力的寫作方法。
  Communicating with other people by telephone is very convenient,
  especially when you have something urgent. For example, if one of your family members is seriously
  ill at night, and you don’t know how to deal with it and where to find a doctor, what can you do? A telephone is the answer. Dial 120 and you will get services from the hospital very soon.

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